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Dr. Nicolas Kokkalis

Dr. Nicolas Kokkalis

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pi白皮书

日期:2019-11-28
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  导言

  Problem: Accessibility of 1st Gen Cryptocurrencies

  问题:第一代加密钱银的易用性

  Solution: Pi - Mining Goes Mobile

  处理方案:Pi-让挖矿运转于移动终端

  Pi Economic Model: Balancing Scarcity and Access

  Pi经济模型:稀缺性与获取性的平衡

  Utility: Monetizing untapped resources in p2p

  效用:将p2p中没有开发的资源钱银化

  Governance - Currency for and by the people

  管理——众创和众用的钱银

  Roadmap / Deployment plan

  路线图/布置方案

  Draft 1 on March 14, 2019

  草案1 2019年3月14日

  Preface

  前语

  As the world becomes increasingly digital, cryptocurrency is a next natural step in the evolution of money. Pi is the first digital currency for everyday people, representing a major step forward in the adoption of cryptocurrency worldwide.

  跟着国际变得越来越数字化,加密钱银成为钱银开展的天然趋势。Pi将是每一个人日常生活中运用的第一种数字钱银,标志着全国际在选用加密钱银方面向前迈进了一大步。

  Our Mission: Build a cryptocurrency and smart contracts platform secured and operated by everyday people.

  咱们的使命:树立一个平常人能运用的加密钱银智能合约平台,既安全又易于操作。

  Our Vision: Build the world's most inclusive peer-to-peer marketplace, fueled by Pi, the world's most widely used cryptocurrency.

  咱们的愿景:在Pi(国际上运用最广泛的加密钱银)的推进下,树立国际上最具包容性的p2p商场。

  DISCLAIMER for more advanced readers: Because Pi's mission is to be inclusive as possible, we're going to take this opportunity to introduce our blockchain newbies to the rabbit hole 

  免责声明:由于Pi的使命是尽或许包容,咱们将借此时机介绍给新进场的区块链新手们:)

  Introduction: Why cryptocurrencies matter

  导言:为什么加密钱银如此重要

  Currently, our everyday financial transactions rely upon a trusted third party to maintain a record of transactions. For example, when you do a bank transaction, the banking system keeps a record & guarantees that the transaction is safe & reliable. Likewise, when Cindy transfers $5 to Steve using PayPal, PayPal maintains a central record of $5 dollars debited from Cindy's account and $5 credited to Steve's. Intermediaries like banks, PayPal, and other members of the current economic system play an important role in regulating the world's financial transactions.

  现在,咱们日常的金融买卖依靠于一个值得信赖的第三方来维护买卖记载。例如,当你进行银行买卖时,银行体系会记载并保证买卖是安全牢靠的。同样,当辛迪运用贝宝向史蒂夫搬运5美元时,贝宝坚持着从辛迪账户借记5美元和记入史蒂夫账户5美元的中心记载。像银行、贝宝和当时经济体系的其他成员这样的中介安排在监管国际金融买卖方面发挥着重要作用。

  However, the role of these trusted intermediaries also has limitations:

  可是,这些值得信赖的中介安排的作用也有局限性:

  Unfair value capture. These intermediaries amass billions of dollars in wealth creation (PayPal market cap is ~$130B), but pass virtually nothing onto their customers - the everyday people on the ground, whose money drives a meaningful proportion of the global economy. More and more people are falling behind.

  1.不公平的价值获取。这些中介安排积累了数十亿美元的财富发明(贝宝的市值约为1300亿美元),但几乎没有把任何东西转嫁给他们的客户——实地的普通人,他们攫取的钱财在全球经济中占有适当大的比重。越来越多的人被远远摔在身后而望尘莫及。

  Fees. Banks and companies charge large fees for facilitating transactions. These fees often disproportionately impact lower-income populations who have the fewest alternatives.

  2.费用。银行和公司为便利买卖收取高额费用。这些费用往往严峻影响到低收入人口,而他们别无挑选。

  Censorship. If a particular trusted intermediary decides that you should not be able to move your money, it can place restrictions on the movement of your money.

  3.查看制度。假如一个信托安排以为你不应该搬运你的钱,它能够对你的钱的流动设置约束。

  Permissioned. The trusted intermediary serves as a gatekeeper who can arbitrarily prevent anybody from being part of the network.

  4.许可。作为中间商的授信安排成为你进入全球网的守关人,能够恣意阻止任何人成为网络的一份子。

  Pseudonymous. At a time when the issue of privacy is gaining greater urgency, these powerful gatekeepers can accidentally disclose – or force you to disclose – more financial information about yourself than you may want.

  5.隐私。在隐私问题变得越来越紧迫的时分,这些强壮的看门人或许会意外地发表----或许逼迫你发表----比你想要的更多的关于你自己的财务信息。

  Bitcoin's "peer-to-peer electronic cash system," launched in 2009 by an anonymous programmer (or group) Satoshi Nakamoto, was a watershed moment for the freedom of money. For the first time in history, people could securely exchange value, without requiring a third party or trusted intermediary. Paying in Bitcoin meant that people like Steve and Cindy could pay each other directly, bypassing institutional fees, obstructions and intrusions. Bitcoin was truly a currency without boundaries, powering and connecting a new global economy.

  比特币的"点对点电子现金体系"于2009年由一个匿名的程序员(或集体)中本聪发起,是钱银自在的一个分水岭。有史以来第一次,人们能够安全地交流价值,而不需求第三方或信赖的中间人。用比特币支付意味着像史蒂夫和辛迪这样的人能够直接互相支付,绕过安排收费、妨碍和入侵。比特币是一种实在的无国界钱银,为新的全球经济供给动力和衔接。

  Introduction to Distributed Ledgers

  散布式分类账介绍

  Bitcoin achieved this historical feat by using a distributed record. While the current financial system relies on the traditional central record of truth, the Bitcoin record is maintained by a distributed community of "validators," who access and update this public ledger. Imagine the Bitcoin protocol as a globally shared "Google Sheet" that contains a record of transactions, validated and maintained by this distributed community.

  比特币经过运用散布式记载完成了这一前史壮举。虽然现在的金融体系依靠于传统的实在记载,但比特币的记载是由一个散布式的"验证者"社区维护的,这些"验证者"负责拜访和更新这个公共账簿。把比特币协议想象成一个全球同享的"谷歌表",其间包括买卖记载,由这个散布式社区验证和维护。

  The breakthrough of Bitcoin (and general blockchain technology) is that, even though the record is maintained by a community, the technology enables them to always reach consensus on truthful transactions, insuring that cheaters cannot record false transactions or overtake the system. This technological advancement allows for the removal of the centralized intermediary, without compromising transactional financial security.

  比特币(以及一般的区块链技能)的突破在于,虽然记载是由社区维护的,但该技能使他们总是能够就实在买卖到达一致,保证骗子不会记载虚伪买卖或超越体系。这种技能进步答应撤销会集的中介,而不损害买卖性金融安全。

  Benefits of distributed ledgers

  散布式分类账的好处

  In addition to decentralization, bitcoin, or cryptocurrencies in general, share a few nice properties that make money smarter and safer, although different cryptocurrencies may be stronger in some properties and weaker in others, based on different implementations of their protocols. Cryptocurrencies are held in cryptographic wallets identified by a publicly accessible address, and is secured by a very strong privately held password, called the private key. This private key cryptographically signs transaction and is virtually impossible to create fraudulent signatures. This provides security and unseizability. Unlike traditional bank accounts that can be seized by government authorities, the cryptocurrency in your wallet can never be taken away by anyone without your private key. Cryptocurrencies are censorship resistant due to the decentralized nature because anyone can submit transactions to any computer in the network to get recorded and validated. Cryptocurrency transactions are immutable because each block of transactions represents a cryptographic proof (a hash) of all the previous blocks that existed before that. Once someone sends you money, they cannot steal back their payment to you (i.e., no bouncing checks in blockchain). Some of the cryptocurrencies can even support atomic transactions. "Smart contracts" built atop these cryptocurrencies do not merely rely on law for enforcement, but directly enforced through publicly auditable code, which make them trustless and can potentially get rid of middlemen in many businesses, e.g. Escrow for real estate.

  除了地方分权,比特币,或许一般的加密钱银,同享一些好的特点,使钱银愈加智能和安全,虽然不同的加密钱银或许在某些特点上更强,而在其他的弱,依据他们的协议的不同完成。加密钱银存放在由公共可拜访地址标识的加密钱包中,并由一个十分强壮的私家暗码维护,称为私家密钥。这种私钥经过暗码签署买卖,实际上不或许创立欺诈性签名。这供给了安全性和无可可抓取性。不像传统的银行账户能够被政府当局查封,你钱包里的加密钱银永久不会被没有你私家钥匙的任何人拿走。由于涣散的特性,加密钱银具有抗查看的能力,由于任何人都能够向网络中的任何一台核算机提交买卖,以取得记载和验证。加密钱银业务是不可变的,由于每个业务块表示之前存在的一切块的加密证明(散列)。一旦有人寄钱给你,他们不能偷回他们的付款给你(也便是说,没有跳票在块环链)。一些加密钱银甚至能够支撑原子买卖。树立在这些加密钱银之上的"智能合同"不只依靠于执法,而且直接经过可公开审计的代码执行,这使得它们不受信赖,并有或许摆脱许多企业的中间商,例如房地产保管中介。

  Securing distributed ledgers (Mining)

  散布式总账的安全(挖矿)

  One of challenges of maintaining a distributed record of transactions is security – specifically, how to have an open and editable ledger while preventing fraudulent activity. To address this challenge, Bitcoin introduced a novel process called Mining (using the consensus algorithm "Proof of Work") to determine who is "trusted" to make updates to the shared record of transactions.

  维护散布式买卖记载的应战之一是安全性——详细来说,如安在防止欺诈活动的一同具有一个敞开和可编辑的分类账。为了应对这一应战,比特币引进了一种名为挖矿(运用一致算法"作业证明")的新颖进程,以承认谁是"可信赖的",然后更新买卖的同享记载。

  You can think of mining as a type of economic game that forces "Validators" to prove their merit when trying to add transactions to the record. To qualify, Validators must solve a series of complex computational puzzles. The Validator who solves the puzzle first is rewarded by being allowed to post the latest block of transactions. Posting the latest block of transactions allows Validators to "mine" a Block Reward - currently 12.5 bitcoin (or ~$40,000 at the time of writing).

  你能够以为挖矿是一种经济游戏,它迫使"验证者"在企图将买卖添加到记载中时证明自己的价值。为了验证,验证器有必要处理一系列杂乱的核算难题。首要处理这个难题的奉献者将取得答应发布最新的买卖块的奖赏。发布最新的买卖块答应验证器"发掘"一块奖赏-现在12.5比特币(约合40,000美元在本文编撰时)。

  This process is very secure, but it demands enormous computing power and energy consumption as users essentially "burn money" to solve the computational puzzle that earns them more Bitcoin. The burn-to-reward ratio is so punitive that it is always in Validators' self-interest to post honest transactions to the Bitcoin record.

  这个进程十分安全,但它需求巨大的核算能力和动力耗费,由于用户实际上是"烧钱"来处理核算难题,然后赚取更多的比特币。烧钱与奖赏的比例是如此的惩罚性,以至于在比特币记载上发布诚笃的买卖始终符合验证者的自身利益。

  Problem: Centralization of power and money put 1st Generation Cryptocurrencies out of reach.

  问题:权力和金钱的会集使第一代加密钱银无法触及。

  In the early days of Bitcoin, when only a few people were working to validate transactions and mining the first blocks, anyone could earn 50 BTC by simply running Bitcoin mining software on their personal computer. As the currency began to gain in popularity, clever miners realized that they could earn more if they had more than one computer working to mine.

  在比特币的前期,只需少量人在验证买卖和发掘第一个块,任何人只需在个人电脑上运转比特币发掘软件就能够赚到50比特币。跟着比特币开端盛行,聪明的矿工们意识到,假如他们有不止一台电脑来发掘,他们能够赚得更多。

  As Bitcoin continued to increase in value, entire companies began to spring up to mine. These companies developed specialized chips ("ASICs") and constructed huge farms of servers using these ASIC chips to mine Bitcoin. The emergence of these enormous mining corporations, known drove the Bitcoin Gold Rush, making it very difficult for everyday people to contribute to the network and get rewarded. Their efforts also began consuming increasingly large amounts of computing energy, contributing to mounting environmental issues around the world.

  跟着比特币价值的继续增加,大批公司开端筹建矿场。这些公司开发了专门的芯片("ASIC"),并运用这些ASIC芯片构建了巨大的服务器群来发掘比特币。这些庞大的矿业公司的出现,推进了比特币淘金热,使得普通人很难为网络做出奉献并取得回报。他们的努力也开端耗费越来越许多的核算动力,导致全球环境问题日益严峻。

  The ease of mining Bitcoin and the subsequent rise of Bitcoin mining farms quickly produced a massive centralization of production power and wealth in Bitcoin's network. To provide some context, 87% of all Bitcoins are now owned by 1% of their network, many of these coins were mined virtually free in their early days. As another example, Bitmain, one of Bitcoin's biggest mining operations has earned billions in revenue and profits.

  发掘比特币的快捷以及随之而来的比特币矿场的兴起,迅速促成了比特币网络生产力和财富的大规划会集。为了供给一些布景信息,87%的比特币现在被1%的比特币网络所具有,其间许多比特币在前期几乎是免费发掘的。另一个例子是Bitmain,比特币最大的采矿业务之一,现已取得了数十亿美元的收入和赢利。

  The centralization of power in Bitcoin's network makes it very difficult and expensive for the average person. If you want to acquire Bitcoin, your easiest options are to:

  比特币网络中的权力会集对普通人来说是十分困难和昂贵的。假如你想取得比特币,你最简略的挑选是:

  Mine It Yourself. Just hook up the specialized hardware (here's a rig on Amazon, if you're interested!) and go to town. Just know that since you'll be competing against massive server farms from across the world, consuming as much energy as the country of Switzerland, you won't be able to mine much.

  1.自己发掘。只需具有专门的硬件(假如你感兴趣的话,这儿是亚马逊上的一个平台!)然后去淘换。只需知道,由于你将与来自国际各地的大型服务器农场竞赛,耗费的动力适当于整个瑞士国家的动力,而你却将无法发掘太多的资源。

  Buy Bitcoin on an exchange. Today, you can buy Bitcoin at a unit price of $3,500 / coin at the time of writing (note: you can buy fractional amount of Bitcoin!) Of course, you would also be taking on substantial risk in doing so as the price of Bitcoin is quite volatile.

  2.在买卖所购买比特币。如今,在编撰本文时,你能够以每枚3500美元的单位价格购买比特币(留意:你能够购买部分数量的比特币!)当然,由于比特币的价格适当不安稳,这样做也将承当巨大的风险。

  Bitcoin was the first to show how cryptocurrency could disrupt the current financial model, giving people the ability to make transactions without having a third party in the way. The increase in freedom, flexibility, and privacy continues to drive the inevitable march toward digital currencies as a new norm. Despite its benefits, Bitcoin's (likely unintended) concentration of money and power present a meaningful barrier to mainstream adoption. As Pi's core team has conducted research to try to understand why people are reluctant to enter the cryptocurrency space. People consistently cited the risk of investing/mining as a key barrier to entry.

  比特币初次展现了加密钱银怎么打破当时的金融形式,使人们能够在没有第三方阻止的情况下进行买卖。自在度、灵活性和隐私的添加继续推进着数字钱银不可防止地成为一种新的规范。虽然比特币有许多好处,但它(或许是无意中)的资金和权力会集给主流运用带来了很大的妨碍。Pi的中心团队进行了一项研讨,企图了解为什么人们不愿意进入加密钱银范畴。人们一向以为出资/采矿的风险是进入商场的一个关键妨碍。

  Solution: Pi - Enabling mining on mobile phones

  处理方案:在移动电话上完成Pi发掘

  After identifying these key barriers to adoption, the Pi Core Team set out to find a way that would allow everyday people to mine (or earn cryptocurrency rewards for validating transactions on a distributed record of transactions). As a refresher, one of the major challenges that arises with maintaining a distributed record of transactions is ensuring that updates to this open record are not fraudulent. While Bitcoin's process for updating its record is proven (burning energy / money to prove trustworthiness), it is not very user (or planet!) friendly. For Pi, we introduced the additional design requirement of employing a consensus algorithm that would also be extremely user friendly and ideally enable mining on personal computers and mobile phones.

  在承认了这些选用的关键妨碍之后,Pi中心小组开端寻觅一种办法,让普通人能够发掘(或许经过验证散布式买卖记载的买卖取得加密钱银奖赏)。作为一个守护者,维护散布式业务记载的首要应战之一是保证对这个公开记载的更新不是欺诈。虽然比特币更新记载的进程现已得到证明(焚烧能量/金钱来证明可信度),但它并不是很好的用户(或星球!)友爱的。关于Pi,咱们引进了额定的规划要求,即选用一致性算法,这种算法对用户十分友爱,抱负情况下能够在个人电脑和移动电话上进行发掘。

  In comparing existing consensus algorithms (the process that records transactions into a distributed ledger), the Stellar Consensus Protocol emerges as the leading candidate to enable user-friendly, mobile-first mining. Stellar Consensus Protocol (SCP) was architected by David Mazières a professor of Computer Science at Stanford who also serves as Chief Scientist at the Stellar Development Foundation. SCP uses a novel mechanism called Federated Byzantine Agreements to ensure that updates to a distributed ledger are accurate and trustworthy. SCP is also deployed in practice through the Stellar blockchain that has been operating since 2015.

  在比较现有的一致性算法(将业务记载到散布式分类账的进程)时,Stellar一致性协议成为支撑用户友爱、移动优先发掘的首要候选方案。恒星一致协议(starConsensusProtocol,SCP)是由斯坦福大学核算机科学教授Davidmazi规划的,他一同也是恒星开展基金会的首席科学家。Scp运用一种称为联邦拜占庭协议(federatedbyzantineagreement)的新机制来保证散布式分类账的更新是精确和可信的。Scp也经过自2015年以来一向运转的Stellar区块链在实践中进行布置。

  A simplified introduction to consensus algorithms

  一致性算法简介

  Before jumping to introducing the Pi consensus algorithm, it helps to have a simple explanation on what a consensus algorithm does for a blockchain and the types of consensus algorithms that today's blockchain protocols generally use, e.g. Bitcoin and SCP. This section is explicitly written in a oversimplified manner for the sake of clarity, and is not complete. For higher accuracy, see the section Adaptations to SCP below and read the stellar consensus protocol paper.

  在介绍Pi一致性算法之前,先简略解说一下一致性算法对区块链的作用,以及当今区块链协议一般运用的一致性算法的类型,例如比特币和SCP。为了清晰起见,本节显式地以过于简化的方法编写,而且不完好陈说。要取得更高的精确性,请参阅下面的SCP习惯章节,并阅览首要一致协议文件。

  A blockchain is a fault-tolerant distributed system that aims to totally order a list of blocks of transactions. Fault-tolerant distributed systems is an area of computer science that has been studied for many decades. They are called distributed systems because they do not have a centralized server but instead they are composed of a decentralized list of computers (called nodes or peers) that need to come to a consensus as to what is the content and total ordering of blocks. They are also called fault-tolerant because they can tolerate a certain degree of faulty nodes into the system (e.g. up to 33% of nodes can be faulty and the overall system continues to operate normally).

  区块链是一个容错的散布式体系,旨在彻底有序的业务块列表。容错散布式体系是核算机科学的一个范畴,现已研讨了几十年。它们之所以被称为散布式体系,是由于它们没有一个会集的服务器,而是由一个涣散的核算机列表(称为节点或对等点)组成,这些核算机需求就块的内容和总次第到达一致。它们也被称为容错节点,由于它们能够容忍体系中某种程度的过错节点(例如,多达33%的节点或许出错,整个体系继续正常运转)。

  There are two broad categories of consensus algorithms: The ones that elect a node as the leader who produces the next block, and the ones where there is no explicit leader but all nodes come to a consensus of what the next block is after exchanging votes by sending computer messages to each other. (Strictly speaking the last sentence contains multiple inaccuracies, but it helps us explain the broad strokes.)

  一致同意算法有两大类:一类是选出一个节点作为发作下一个块的领导者,另一类是没有明确的领导者,但一切节点经过互相发送核算机音讯,对下一个块的内容到达一致意见。(严厉来说,终究一句包括了多个不精确的地方,可是它帮忙咱们解说了大致内容。)

  Bitcoin uses the first type of consensus algorithm: All bitcoin nodes are competing against each other in solving a cryptographic puzzle. Because the solution is found randomly, essentially the node that finds the solution first, by chance, is elected the leader of the round who produces the next block. This algorithm is called "Proof of work" and results in a lot of energy consumption.

  比特币运用第一种一致算法:一切比特币节点在处理暗码难题时相互竞赛。由于解是随机发现的,本质上,首要找到解的节点,偶然地,被选举为发作下一个块的轮的领导者。这种算法被称为"作业证明",并导致许多的动力耗费。

  A simplified introduction to Stellar Consensus Protocol

  《恒星一致议定书》简介

  Pi uses the other type of consensus algorithms and is based on the Stellar Consensus Protocol (SCP) and an algorithm called Federated Byzantine Agreement (FBA). Such algorithms don't have energy waste but they require exchanging many network messages in order for the nodes to come to "consensus" on what the next block should be. Each node can independently determine if a transaction is valid or not, e.g. authority of making the transition and double spending, based on the cryptographic signature and the transaction history. However, for a network of computers to agree on which transactions to record in a block and the order of these transactions and blocks, they need to message each other and have multiple rounds of voting to come to consensus. Intuitively, such messages from different computers in the network about which block is the next would look like the following: "I propose we all vote for block A to be next"; "I vote for block A to be the next block"; "I confirm that the majority of the nodes I trust also voted for block A", from which the consensus algorithm enables this node to conclude that "A is the next block; and there could be no block other than A as the next block"; Even though the above voting steps seem a lot, the internet is adequately fast and these messages are lightweight, thus such consensus algorithms are more lightweight than Bitcoin's proof of work. One major representative of such algorithms is called Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT). Several of the top blockchains today are based on variants of BFT, such as NEO and Ripple.

  Pi运用其他类型的一致性算法,并依据StellarConsensusProtocol(SCP)和一个名为FederatedByzantineAgreement(FBA)的算法。这种算法没有动力浪费,可是它们需求交流许多网络音讯,以便节点对下一个块应该是什么到达"一致"。每个节点能够独登时承认一个业务是否有用,例如依据加密签名和业务前史承认进行转化和重复开销的权限。可是,关于一个核算机网络来说,要商定在一个块中记载哪些买卖以及这些买卖和块的次序,它们需求彼此发送音讯,并进行多轮投票才干到达一致。从直观上看,来自网络中不同核算机的关于下一个块是哪个块的信息看起来像这样:"我提议咱们都投票支撑a块成为下一个块";"我投票支撑a块成为下一个块";"我承认我信赖的大多数节点也投票支撑a块",从这个一致性算法中,该节点能够得出结论:"a是下一个块;除了a之外,没有其他块是下一个块";虽然上面的投票步骤看起来许多,但互联网满足快,这些信息是轻量级的,因而这种一致性算法不只仅是作业的证明。这种算法的一个首要代表被称为拜占庭将军问题算法。今日的一些尖端块环链是依据BFT的变体,如NEO和Ripple。

  One major criticism of BFT is that it has a centralization point: because voting is involved, the set of nodes participating in the voting "quorum" are centrally determined by the creator of the system in its beginning. The contribution of FBA is that, instead of having one centrally determined quorum, each node sets their own "quorum slices", which will in turn form different quorums. New nodes can join the network in a decentralized way: they declare the nodes that they trust and convince other nodes to trust them, but they don't have to convince any central authority.

  对BFT的一个首要批评是它有一个会集点:由于涉及到投票,参加投票"quorum"的节点集在开端时由体系的创立者会集决议。Fba的奉献在于,每个节点都设置了自己的"法定人数小组",而不是由一个中心决议的法定人数,这些法定人数小组又会构成不同的四分之一。新的节点能够以涣散的方法参加网络:它们声明它们信赖的节点,并压服其他节点信赖它们,但它们不需求压服任何中心权威安排。

  SCP is one instantiation of FBA. Instead of burning energy like in Bitcoin's proof of work consensus algorithm, SCP nodes secure the shared record by vouching for other nodes in the network as trustworthy. Each node in the network builds a quorum slice, consisting of other nodes in the network that they deem to be trustworthy. Quorums are formed based on its members quorum slices, and a validator will only accept new transactions if and only if a proportion of nodes in their quorums will also accept the transaction. As validators across the network construct their quorums, these quorums help nodes to reach consensus about transactions with guarantee on security. You can learn more about the Stellar Consensus Protocol by watching this short, 7 min explanation video or checking out this technical summary of SCP.

  Scp是FBA的一个实例。不像比特币的作业证明一致性算法那样耗费能量,SCP节点经过担保网络中的其他节点是可信的来维护同享记载。网络中的每个节点构建quorumslice,quorumslice由网络中它们以为可信的其他节点组成。量程是依据其成员的法定人数小组构成的,而且只需当且仅当量程中的一部分节点也承受业务时,验证器才会承受新的业务。由于整个网络的验证器构造它们的原则,这些原则帮忙节点在保证安全的前提下就业务到达一致。你能够经过观看这个7分钟的简短解说视频或许查看SCP的技能总结来了解更多关于恒星一致性协议的信息。

  Pi's Adaptations to Stellar Consensus Protocol (SCP)

  Pi对恒星协商一致协议(SCP)的习惯

  Pi's consensus algorithm builds atop SCP. SCP has been formally proven [Mazieres 2015] and is currently implemented within the Stellar Network. Unlike Stellar Network consisting mostly of companies and institutions (e.g., IBM) as nodes, Pi intends to allow devices of individuals to contribute on the protocol level and get rewarded, including mobile phones, laptops and computers. Below is an introduction on how Pi applies SCP to enabling mining by individuals.

  Pi的一致性算法树立在SCP之上。Scp已被正式证明[Mazieres2015],现在正在恒星网络中施行。与首要由公司和安排(如IBM)组成的StellarNetwork不同,Pi方案答应个人设备在协议层面做出奉献并取得奖赏,包括移动电话、笔记本电脑和核算机。下面介绍Pi怎么将SCP运用到个人挖矿中。

  There are four roles Pi users can play, as Pi miners. Namely:

  用户能够扮演四个人物,即:

  ? Pioneer. A user of the Pi mobile app who is simply confirming that they are not a "robot" on a daily basis. http://xapipi.cnThis user validates their presence every time they sign in to the app. They can also open the app to request transactions (e.g. make a payment in Pi to another Pioneer)

  ? 前锋。Pi手机运用的用户每天仅仅简略地承认他们不是"机器人"。这个用户每次登录到运用程序时都会验证他们的存在。他们还能够打开运用程序恳求买卖(例如用Pi向另一个先行公司付款)

  ? Contributor. A user of the Pi mobile app who is contributing by providing a list of pioneers he or she knows and trusts. In aggregate, Pi contributors will build a global trust graph.

  ? 奉献者。Pi手机运用程序的用户,经过供给他或她所知道和信赖的前锋名单来做出奉献。总的来说,Pi奉献者将树立一个大局信赖图。

  ? Ambassador. A user of the Pi mobile app who is introducing other users into Pi Network.

  ? 大使。一个Pi手机运用程序的用户,他正在将其他用户引进Pi网络。

  ? Node. A user who is a pioneer, a contributor using the Pi mobile app, and is also running the Pi node software on their desktop or laptop computer. The Pi node software is the software that runs the core SCP algorithm, taking into account the trust graph information provided by the Contributors.

  ? 节点。一个运用Pi移动运用程序的前锋,一个奉献者,而且在他们的台式机或笔记本电脑上运转Pi节点软件。Pi节点软件是运转中心SCP算法的软件,此软件参照奉献者供给的信赖图信息。

  A user can play more than one of the above roles. All roles are necessary, thus all roles are rewarded with newly minted Pi on a daily basis as long as they participated and contributed during that given day. In the loose definition of a "miner" being a user who receives newly minted currency as a reward for contributions, all four roles are considered to be Pi miners. We define"mining" more broadly than its traditional meaning equated to executing proof of work consensus algorithm as in Bitcoin or Ethereum.

  用户能够扮演上述多个人物。一切的人物都是必要的,因而一切的人物都会在每天的根底上取得新的Pi币,只需他们在那一天参加并做出奉献。在对"miner"的宽松界说中,"miner"是指取得新币作为奉献奖赏的用户,一切四个人物都被以为是Pi矿工。咱们对"挖矿"的界说比传统意义上的"执行作业证明一致性算法"更宽泛,比如在比特币或以太网中。

  First of all, we need to emphasize that the Pi Node software has not been released yet. So this section is offered more as an architectural design and as a request to solicit comments from the technical community. This software will be fully open source and it will also heavily depend on stellar-core which is also open source software, available here. This means that anyone in the community will be able to read, comment and propose improvements on it. Below are the Pi proposed changes to SCP to enable mining by individual devices.

  首要,咱们需求着重的是Pi Node软件还没有发布。因而,本节更多的是作为一个架构规划供给的,也是一个向技能社区寻求意见的恳求。这个软件将是彻底开源的,它也将严峻依靠恒星中心,这也是开源软件,可在这儿。这意味着社区中的任何人都能够阅览、谈论并提出改善主张。下面是Pi提议的SCP更改,以支撑单设备发掘。

  Nodes

  节点

  For readability, we define as a correctly connected node to be what the SCP paper refers to as an intact node. Also, for readability, we define as the main Pi Network to be the set of all intact nodes in the Pi Network. The main task of each Node is to be configured to be correctly connected to the main Pi Network. Intuitively, a node being incorrectly connected to the main network is similar to a Bitcoin node not being connected to the main bitcoin network.

  为了便于阅览,咱们将SCP文章中提到的正确衔接节点界说为完好节点。别的,为了可读性,咱们将主Pi中文网中一切完好节点的集合。每个节点的首要使命是装备为正确衔接到主Pi网络。直观地说,一个不正确地衔接到主网络的节点类似于一个没有衔接到主比特币网络的比特币节点。

  In SCP's terms, for a node to get correctly connected means that this node must chose a "quorum slice" such that all resulting quorums that include this node intersect with the existing network's quorums. More precisely, a node vn+1 is correctly connected to a main network N of n already correctly connected nodes (v1, v2, …, vn) if the resulting system N' of n+1 nodes (v1, v2, …, vn+1) enjoys quorum intersection. In other words, N' enjoys quorum intersection iff any two of its quorums share a node. – i.e., for all quorums U1 and U2, U1∩U2 ≠ ?.

  用SCP的术语来说,一个节点要正确衔接意味着这个节点有必要挑选一个"量子组",这样包括这个节点的一切发作的量子与现有网络的量子相交。更精确地说,一个节点vn+1正确衔接到一个主网络n的n个现已正确衔接的节点(v1,v2,…,vn),假如得到的体系n'的n+1节点(v1,v2,…,vn+1)享有量子交集。换句话说,n'享有量子链接权,当且仅当其恣意两个量子同享一个节点。–即,关于一切的量子集U1和U2,U1和U2交集≠恣意值。

  The main contribution of Pi over the existing Stellar consensus deployment is that it introduces the concept of a trust graph provided by the Pi Contributors as information that can be used by the Pi nodes when they are setting up their configurations to connect to the main Pi Network.

  关于现有的恒星一致布置,Pi的首要奉献是引进了Pi奉献者供给的信赖图的概念,作为Pi节点在设置衔接到主Pi网络的装备时能够运用的信息。

  When picking their quorum slices, these Nodes must take into consideration the trust graph provided by the Contributors, including their own security circle. To assist in this decision, we intend to provide auxiliary graph analysis software to assist users running Nodes to make as informed decisions as possible. This software's daily output will include:

  在挑选它们的待接入组时,这些节点有必要考虑奉献者供给的信赖图,包括它们自己的安全圈。为了帮忙这一决议,咱们方案供给辅助图形剖析软件,以帮忙运转节点的用户做出尽或许知情的决议。该软件的日常输出包括:

  ? a ranked list of nodes ordered by their distance from the current node in the trust graph; a ranked list of nodes based a pagerank analysis of nodes in the trust graph

  ? 信赖图中依照节点与当时节点的距离排序的节点的排序列表;依据信赖图中节点的pagerank剖析的节点排序列表

  ? a list of nodes reported by the community as faulty in any way a list of new nodes seeking to join the network

  ? 由社区报告的在任何方面都是过错的节点列表寻求参加网络的新节点列表

  ? a list of most recent articles from the web on the keyword "misbehaving Pi nodes" and other related keywords; a visual representation of Nodes comprising the Pi Network similar to what is shown in StellarBeat Quorum monitor [source code] .

  ? 关键字"异常的Pi节点"和其他相关关键字的最新文章列表;与StellarBeat Quorum monitor[源代码]类似的Pi网络节点的直观表示。

  ? a quorum explorer similar to QuorumExplorer.com [source code].

  ? 类似于quorumexplorer.com[源代码]的quorum浏览器。

  ? a simulation tool like the one in StellarBeat Quorum monitor that shows the expected resulting impacts to this nodes' connectivity to the Pi Network when the current node's configuration changes.

  ? 一个类似于StellarBeat Quorum monitor的模仿工具,显现当时节点的装备发作变化时,预期成果对节点与Pi网络的衔接发作的影响。

  An interesting research problem for future work is to develop algorithms that can take into consideration the trust graph and suggest each node an optimal configuration, or even set that configuration automatically. On the first deployment of the Pi Network, while users running Nodes can update their Node configuration at any time, they will be prompted to confirm their configurations daily and asked to update them if they see fit.

  未来作业的一个有趣的研讨问题是开发算法,能够考虑信赖图,并主张每个节点一个最佳装备,甚至自动设置该装备。在Pi网络的第一次布置中,当运转Node的用户能够随时更新他们的Node装备时,体系会提示他们每天承认他们的装备,并要求他们在以为合适的时分进行更新。

  Mobile app users

  移动运用程序用户

  When a Pioneer needs to confirm that a given transaction has been executed (e.g. that they have received Pi) they open the mobile app. At that point, the mobile app connects to one or more Nodes to inquire if the transaction has been recorded on the ledger and also to get the most recent block number and hash value of that block. If that Pioneer is also running a Node the mobile app connects to that Pioneer's own node. If the Pioneer is not running a node, then the app connects to multiple nodes and to cross check this information. Pioneers will have the ability select which nodes they want their apps to connect to. But to make it simple for most users, the app should have a reasonable default set of nodes, e.g. a number of nodes closest to the user based on the trust graph, along with a random selection of nodes high in pagerank. We ask for your feedback on how the default set of nodes for mobile Pioneers should be selected.

  当时锋需求承认一个给定的买卖现已执行(例如,他们现已收到了π),他们就会打开移动运用程序。此时,移动运用程序衔接到一个或多个节点,以查询买卖是否已被记载在分类账上,并获取该块的最新块号和散列值。假如前锋也运转一个Node,那么移动运用程序将衔接到前锋自己的节点。假如前锋没有运转一个节点,那么运用程序将衔接到多个节点并穿插查看这些信息。前锋能够挑选他们期望他们的运用程序衔接到哪些节点。可是为了让大多数用户简略,运用程序应该有一个合理的默认节点集,例如依据信赖图的一些最接近用户的节点,以及随机挑选的高pagerank的节点。咱们请您就怎么挑选移动前锋的默认节点集供给反应。

  Mining rewards

  挖矿奖赏

  A beautiful property of the SCP algorithm is that it is more generic than a blockchain. It coordinates consensus across a distributed system of Nodes. This means that the same core algorithm is not only used every few seconds to record new transactions in new blocks, but also it can be used to periodically run more complex computations. For example, once a week, the stellar network is using it to compute inflation on the stellar network and allocate the newly minted tokens proportionally to all stellar coin holders (Stellar's coin is called lumens). In a similar manner, the Pi Network employs SCP once a day to compute the network-wide new Pi distribution across all Pi miners (pioneers, contributors, ambassadors, nodes) who actively participated in any given day. In other words, Pi mining rewards are computed only once daily and not on every block of the blockchain.

  Scp算法的一个优越的特性是它比区块链愈加通用。它协调整个散布式节点体系的一致性。这意味着相同的中心算法不只每隔几秒就用于在新块中记载新业务,而且还能够用于周期性地运转更杂乱的核算。例如,恒星网络每周一次运用它来核算恒星网络上的扩容,并将新铸造的代币按比例分配给一切恒星币持有者(恒星币称为流明)。同样,Pi网络每天运用SCP一次核算一切Pi矿工(前锋者、奉献者、大使、节点)具有的新Pi币的散布。换句话说,Pi币发掘奖赏核算只需每天一次,而不是在每个块环链块。

  For comparison Bitcoin allocates mining rewards on every block and it give all of the reward to the miner who was lucky enough to be able to solve a computationally intensive randomized task. This reward in Bitcoin currently 12.5 Bitcoin (~$40K) is given to only one miner every 10 minutes. This makes it extremely unlikely for any given miner to ever get rewards. As a solution to that, bitcoin miners are getting organized in centralized mining pools, which all contribute processing power, increasing the likelihood of getting rewards, and eventually sharing proportionally those rewards. Mining pools are not only points of centralization, but also their operators get cuts reducing the amount going to individual miners. In Pi, there is no need for mining pools, since once a day everyone who contributed get a meritocratic distribution of new Pi.

  相对而言,比特币在每个区块上分配发掘奖赏,并将一切奖赏给那些幸运地能够处理核算密集型随机使命的矿工。现在,每10分钟只需一名矿工能取得12.5比特币(约合40000美元)的奖赏。这使得任何给定的矿工都极不或许得到奖赏。为了处理这个问题,比特币矿工被安排在会集的发掘池中,这些都有助于提高处理能力,添加取得奖赏的或许性,并终究按比例同享这些奖赏。矿池不只仅中心集权的要点,而且它们的经营者被削减,削减了支付给个体矿工的金额。在Pi中,没有发掘资源的必要,由于每个奉献者每天都会得到一次新派的Pi币分配。

  Transaction fees

  买卖费用

  Similar to Bitcoin transactions, fees are optional in the Pi Network. Each block has a certain limit of how many transactions can be included in it. When there is no backlog of transactions, transactions tend to be free. But if there are more transactions, nodes order them by fee, with highest-fee-transactions at the top and pick only the top transactions to be included in the produced blocks. This makes it an open market. Implementation: Fees are proportionally split among Nodes once a day. On every block, the fee of each transaction is transferred into a temporary wallet from where in the end of the day it is distributed to the active miners of the day. This wallet has an unknown private key. Transactions in and out of that wallet are forced by the protocol itself under the consensus of all nodes in the same way the consensus also mints new Pi every day.

  与比特币买卖类似,在Pi网络中收费是可选的。每个块对其间包括的业务数量都有必定的约束。当买卖没有积压时,买卖往往是自在的。可是,假如有更多的买卖,节点依照收费次序排序,收费最高的买卖坐落顶端,而且只挑选要包括在生成块中的最高买卖。这使它成为一个敞开的商场。完成方法:每天按比例在节点之间分摊一次费用。在每个块区,每笔买卖的费用都会转入一个暂时钱包,在一天结束时,钱包会被分发给当天的活泼矿工。这个钱包有一个不知道的私家钥匙。在一切节点的一致同意下,协议自身强制进出这个钱包的买卖,就像一致同意每天都在铸造新的Pi币一样。

  Limitations and future work

  约束和未来的作业

  SCP has been extensively tested for several years as part of the Stellar Network, which at the time of this writing is the ninth largest cryptocurrency in the world. This gives us a quite large degree of confidence in it. One ambition of the Pi project is to scale the number of nodes in the Pi Network to be larger than the number of nodes in the Stellar network to allow more everyday users to participate in the core consensus algorithm. Increasing the number of nodes, will inevitably increase the number of network messages that must be exchanged between them. Even though these messages are much smaller than an image or a youtube video, and the Internet today can reliably transfer videos quickly, the number of messages necessary increases with the number of participating nodes, which can become bottleneck to the speed of reaching consensus. This will ultimately slow down the rate, at which new blocks and new transactions are recorded in the network. Thankfully, Stellar is currently much faster than Bitcoin. At the moment, Stellar is calibrated to produce a new block every 3 to 5 seconds, being able to support thousands of transactions per second. By comparison, Bitcoin produces a new block every 10 minutes. Moreover, due to Bitcoin's lack in the safety guarantee, Bitcoin's blockchain in rare occasions can be overwritten within the first hour. This means that a user of Bitcoin must wait about 1 hour before they can be sure that a transaction is considered final. SCP guarantees safety, which means after 3-5 seconds one is certain about a transaction. So even with the potential scalability bottleneck, Pi expects to achieve transaction finality faster than Bitcoin and possibly slower than Stellar, and process more transactions per second than Bitcoin and possibly fewer than Stellar.

  作为Stellar网络的一部分,SCP现已被广泛测验了几年,在编撰本文时,该网络是国际上第九大暗码钱银。这给了咱们适当大的决心。项目的一个方针是将Pi网络中的节点数量扩大到大于Stellar网络中的节点数量,以便让更多的日常用户参加中心一致性算法。添加节点的数量,将不可防止地添加有必要在它们之间交流的网络音讯的数量。虽然这些信息比图片或youtube视频小得多,而且今日的互联网能够牢靠地快速传输视频,可是必要的信息数量跟着参加节点数量的添加而添加,这或许成为到达一致速度的瓶颈。这将终究下降网络中记载新块和新业务的速度。值得庆幸的是,Stellar现在比比特币快得多。现在,Stellar被校准为每3到5秒生成一个新块,能够支撑每秒数千次的业务处理。比较之下,比特币每10分钟发作一个新块。此外,由于比特币缺乏安全保证,比特币的区块链在罕见的情况下能够在第一个小时内被掩盖。这意味着比特币用户有必要等候大约1小时,才干保证买卖被视为终究买卖。Scp能够保证安全,这意味着在3-5秒之后就能承认一笔买卖。因而,即使存在潜在的可伸缩性瓶颈,Pi还是期望比比特币更快地完成买卖结束,速度或许比Stellar慢,但每秒处理的买卖量比比特币更多,界于Stellar与比特币之间。

  While scalability of SCP is still an open research problem. There are multiple promising ways one could speed things up. One possible scalability solution is bloXroute. BloXroute proposes a blockchain distribution network (BDN) that utilizes a global network of servers optimized for network performance. While each BDN is centrally controlled by one organization, they offer a provably neutral message passing acceleration. I.e. BDNs can only serve all nodes fairly without discrimination as messages are encrypted. This means the BDN does not know where messages come from, where they go, or what is inside. This way Pi nodes can have two message passing routes: A fast one through BDN, which is expected to be reliable most of the time, and its original peer-to-peer message passing interface that is fully decentralized and reliable but is slower. The intuition of this idea is vaguely similar to caching: The cache is place where a computer can access data very quickly, speeding the average computation, but it is not guaranteed to always have every needed piece of information. When the cache misses, the computer is slowed down but nothing catastrophic happens. Another solution can be using secure acknowledgment of multicast messages in open Peer-to-Peer networks [Nicolosi and Mazieres 2004] to speed up message propagation among peers.

  可是SCP的可扩展性依然是一个有待研讨的问题。一个人能够经过多种可期的方法加快进度。一个或许的弹性处理方案是bloXroute。Bloxroute提出了一个区块链散布式网络(BDN),它运用了一个为网络功能优化的全球服务器网络。虽然每个BDN由一个安排会集操控,但它们供给了一个可证明的中立音讯传递加快。也便是说,当音讯被加密时,bdn只能公平地为一切节点供给服务而不会受到架空。这意味着BDN不知道音讯来自哪里,它们去哪里,或许音讯内容是什么。经过这种方法,Pi节点能够有两个音讯传递路由:一个是经过BDN的快速路由,预计在大多数情况下是牢靠的;另一个是其原始的点对点音讯传递接口,该接口彻底涣散且牢靠,但速度较慢。这个主意的直觉与缓存有点类似:缓存是核算机能够十分快速地拜访数据的地方,加快了均匀核算速度,但它并不能保证总是具有一切需求的信息。当缓存未找到时,核算机就会变慢,但不会发作灾难性的情况。另一个处理方案是在敞开的对等网络中运用多播音讯的安全承认来加快对等网络中的音讯传达。

  Pi Economic Model: Balancing Scarcity and Access

  Pi经济模型:稀缺性与获取性的平衡

  Pros and cons of 1st Generation Economic Models

  第一代经济模型的利与弊

  One of Bitcoin's most impressive innovations is its marriage of distributed systems with economic game theory.

  比特币最令人印象深入的创新之一是它将散布式体系与经济博弈理论结合起来。

  Pros

  长处

  Fixed Supply

  固定供给

  Bitcoin's economic model is simple. There will only ever be 21 million Bitcoin in existence. This number is set in code. With only 21M to circulate among 7.5B people around the world, there is not enough Bitcoin to go around. This scarcity is one of most important drivers of Bitcoin's value.

  比特币的经济模型很简略。只需2100万比特币的总量操控。这个数字是用代码设置的。由于只需2100万比特币能够在全球75亿人中流通,所以没有满足的比特币能够流通。这种稀缺性是比特币价值最重要的驱动要素之一。

  Decreasing Block Reward

  块奖赏递减形式

  Bitcoin' distribution scheme, pictured below, further enforces this sense of scarcity. The Bitcoin block mining reward halves every 210,000 blocks (approximately every ~4 years.) In its early days, the Bitcoin block reward was 50 coins. Now, the reward is 12.5, and will further decrease to 6.25 coins in May 2020. Bitcoin's decreasing rate of distribution means that, even as awareness of the currency grows, there is less to actually mine.

  如下图所示,比特币的分配方案进一步强化了这种稀缺感。初期比特币块发掘每21万块奖赏一半(大约每4年),比特币块的奖赏是50个比特币。现在,奖金是12.5个币,到2020年5月将进一步削减到6.25枚币。比特币发行量的下降意味着,即使人们对这种钱银的知道有所提高,实际发掘的比特币数量也会削减。

  Cons

  缺点

  Inverted Means Uneven

  倒立意味着不平衡

  Bitcoin's inverted distribution model (less people earning more in the beginning, and more people earn less today) is one of the primary contributors to its uneven distribution. With so much Bitcoin in the hands of a few early adopters, new miners are "burning" more energy for less bitcoin.

  比特币的反向散布形式(比特币开端时收入较少,现在收入较少)是其散布不均衡的首要原因之一。由于有这么多比特币掌握在少量前期运用者手中,新的矿工们正在"焚烧"更多的能量,以换取更少的比特币。

  Hoarding Inhibits Use as a Medium of Exchange

  币的囤积抑制了比特币作为买卖媒介的运用

  Although Bitcoin was released as a "peer to peer electronic cash" system, the relative scarcity of Bitcoin has impeded Bitcoin's goal of serving as a medium exchange. Bitcoin's scarcity has led to its perception as a form of "digital gold" or a digital store of value. The result of this perception is that many Bitcoin holders are unwilling to spend Bitcoin on day-to-day expenses.

  虽然比特币是作为"点对点电子现金"体系发行的,但比特币的相对稀缺性阻止了比特币作为买卖媒介的方针。比特币的稀缺性导致它被以为是一种"数字黄金"或一种数字价值储存。这种观点的成果是,许多比特币持有者不愿意花比特币支付日常开支。

  The Pi Economic Model

  Pi经济模型

  Pi, on the other hand, seeks to strike a balance between creating a sense of scarcity for Pi, while still ensuring that a large amount does not accumulate into a very small number of hands. We want to make sure our users earn more Pi as they make contributions to the network. Pi's goal is to build an economic model that is sophisticated enough to achieve and balance these priorities while remaining intuitive enough for people to use.

  另一方面,Pi体系企图在为Pi币发明稀缺感的一同,保证许多的Pi币不会积累到极少量人的手中,找到一种平衡。咱们期望保证咱们的用户在为网络做奉献时能取得更多的Pi币。的方针是树立一个满足杂乱的经济模型来完成和平衡这些优先事项,一同坚持满足的直观性以供人们运用。

  Pi's economic model design requirements:

  Pi的经济模型规划要求:

  ? Simple: Build an intuitive and transparent model

  ? 简略:树立一个直观和透明的模型

  ? Fair distribution: Give a critical mass of the world's population access to Pi

  ? 公平分配:让国际上满足多的人接触到Pi

  ? Scarcity: Create a sense of scarcity to sustain Pi's price over time

  ? 稀缺性:发明一种稀缺感来保持Pi的价格而不随时刻的推移而价值下降

  ? Meritocratic earning: Reward contributions to build and sustain the network

  ? 精英收入:奖赏树立和保持网络的奉献

  Pi - Token Supply

  Pi-令牌供给

  Token Emission Policy

  通证开释政策

  Total Max Supply(最大供给量)=M + R + D

  ? M=total mining rewards(挖矿奖赏总额)

  ? R=total referral rewards(引荐奖赏总额)

  ? D=total developer rewards(开发者奖赏总额)

  M=∫ f§ dx,where f is a logarithmically declining function.(其间f是对数递减函数。)

  ? P=Population number (e.g., 1st person to join, 2nd person to join, etc.)

  ? P=人口数(例如,第一个参加者,第二个参加者,等等)

  R=r * M

  ? r=referral rate (50% total or 25% for both referrer and referee)

  ? r=转送率(总转介率为50%,引荐人和裁判人均为25%)

  D=t * (M + R)

  t=developer reward rate开发者奖赏率 (25%)

  M - Mining Supply (Based on fixed mining supply minted per person)

  挖矿供给(以每人固定挖矿供给为根底)

  In contrast to Bitcoin which created a fixed supply of coins for the entire global population, Pi creates a fixed supply of Pi for each person that joins the network up to the first 100 Million participants. In other words, for each person that joins the Pi Network, a fixed amount of Pi is pre-minted. This supply is then released over the lifetime of that member based on their level of engagement and contribution to network security. The supply is released using an exponentially decreasing function similar to Bitcoin's over the member's lifetime.

  与为全球人口供给固定钱银供给的比特币不同,Pi为每个参加网络的人供给固定的Pi值,直到第一个1亿个参加者。换句话说,关于每个参加Pi网络的人,都预先生成一个固定数量的Pi币。然后,依据该成员的参加程度和对网络安全的奉献,在其生命周期内开释此供给。在用户的生命周期中,这些供给运用一个类似于比特币的指数递减函数来开释。

  R - Referral Supply (Based on fixed referral reward minted per person and shared b/w referrer and referee)

  引荐供给(依据固定的引荐奖赏于每个人和同享的根底及同享的引荐人和判决人奖赏)

  In order for a currency to have value, it must be widely distributed. To incentivize this goal, the protocol also generates a fixed amount of Pi that serves as a referral bonus for both the referrer and the referee (or both parent and offspring  This shared pool can be mined by both parties over their lifetime - when both parties are actively mining. Both referrer and referee are able to draw upon this pool in order to avoid exploitative models where referrers are able to "prey" on their referees. The referral bonus serves as a network-level incentive to grow the Pi Network while also incentivizing engagement among members in actively securing the network.

  为了使一种钱银具有价值,它有必要被广泛分发。为了鼓舞这个方针,协议还发作了一个固定数量的Pi币,作为引荐者和被引荐者(比如爸爸妈妈和子女)的引荐奖赏:当两边都在积极发掘时,这个同享池能够由两边共存他们的毕生挖矿奖赏。引荐人和判决人都能够运用这个矿池,以防止判决人会"掠夺"他们的判决人形式。引荐奖赏作为网络层面的鼓舞,促进Pi网络的开展,一同也鼓舞会员积极参加网络安全。

  D - Developer Reward Supply (Additional Pi minted to support ongoing development)

  D-开发人员奖赏补给(为支撑正在进行的开发而发作的额定Pi币)

  Pi will fund its ongoing development with a "Developer Reward" that is minted alongside each coin that is minted for mining and referrals. Traditionally, cryptocurrency protocols have minted a fixed amount of supply that is immediately placed into treasury. Because Pi's total supply is dependent on the number of members in the network, Pi progressively mints its developer reward as the network scales. The progressive minting of Pi's developer reward is meant to align the incentives of Pi's contributors with the overall health of the network.

  Pi将保证"开发者奖赏"的每个Pi币是挖矿及引荐发作的。传统观念上,加密钱银协议现已承认了一个固定数量的币供给,就放入中心库。由于Pi的总供给量取决于网络中的成员数量,因而跟着网络规划的扩大,Pi逐渐削减了对开发者的奖赏。对Pi开发者的奖赏的逐渐添加是为了使Pi的奉献者的鼓舞与整个网络的健康状况坚持一致。

  f is a logarithmically decreasing function - early members earn more

  F是一个对数递减函数-前期成员赚得更多

  While Pi seeks to avoid extreme concentrations of wealth, the network also seeks to reward earlier members and their contributions with a relatively larger share of Pi. When networks such as Pi are in their early days, they tend to provide a lower utility to participants. For example, imagine having the very first telephone in the world. It would be a great technological innovation but not extremely useful. However, as more people acquire telephones, each telephone holder gets more utility out of the network. In order to reward people that come to the network early, Pi's individual mining reward and referral rewards decrease as a function of the number of people in the network. In other words, there is a certain amount of Pi that is reserved for each "slot" in the Pi Network.

  虽然Pi企图防止财富过度会集,但该网络也企图以相对较大的比例奖赏前期成员和他们的奉献。当像Pi这样的网络处于前期阶段时,它们倾向于为参加者供给较低的效用。例如,想象一下国际上第一部电话。这将是一个巨大的技能创新,但不是十分有用。可是,跟着越来越多的人具有了电话,每个电话持有者从网络中取得了更多的实用性。为了奖赏那些早早来到网络的人,Pi的个人挖矿奖赏和引荐奖赏跟着网络中人数的添加而削减。换句话说,有必定数量的Pi是留个"座位"存在于Pi网络之中。

  Utility: Pooling and monetizing our time online

  实用性:在线时刻的汇集和钱银化

  Today, everyone is sitting on a veritable treasure trove of untapped resources. Each of spend hours day on our phones. While on our phones, each of our views, posts or clicks creates extraordinary profits for large corporations. At Pi, we believe that people have the right to capture value created from their resources.

  今日,每个人都坐在一个名副其实的未开发资源宝库上。每个人每天花几个小时在咱们的手机上。在咱们的手机上,咱们的每一个观点、帖子和点击都为大公司发明了非凡的赢利。在Pi网络中,咱们信赖人们有权力从他们的资源中获取价值。

  We all know that we can do more together than we can alone. On today's web, massive corporations like Google, Amazon, Facebook have immense leverage against individual consumers. As a result, they are able to capture the lionshare of value created by individual consumers on the web. Pi levels the playing field by allowing its members to pool their collective resources so they can get a share of the value that they create.

  咱们都知道,咱们一同能做的比咱们独自能做的更多。在今日的互联网上,像谷歌、亚马逊、Facebook这样的大公司对个人消费者有着巨大的影响力。因而,他们能够捉住个人消费者在网络上发明的巨大价值比例。经过答应其成员同享他们的集体资源,这样他们就能够取得他们发明的价值的一部分,然后平衡了竞赛环境。

  The graphic below is the Pi Stack, where we see particularly promising opportunities for helping our members capture value. Below, we go into each of these areas in more detail.

  下面的图表是Pi堆栈,在这儿咱们看到了帮忙咱们的成员获取价值的特别有前途的时机。下面,咱们将更详细地介绍这些范畴中的每一部分。

  Introducing the Pi Stack - Unleashing underutilized resources

  介绍Pi堆栈-开释未充分运用的资源

  Pi Ledger And Shared Trust Graph - Scaling Trust Across The Web

  Pi分类账和同享信赖图——跨Web扩展信赖

  One of the biggest challenges on the internet is knowing who to trust. Today, we rely on the rating systems of providers such as Amazon, eBay, Yelp, to know who we can transact with on the internet. Despite the fact that we, customers, do the hard work of rating and reviewing our peers, these internet intermediaries capture the lionshare of the value created this work.

  互联网上最大的应战之一便是知道该信赖谁。今日,咱们依靠于诸如亚马逊、eBay、Yelp等供给商的评级体系来了解咱们能够在互联网上与谁进行买卖。虽然咱们这些客户做着评级和查看同行的艰苦作业,但这些互联网中介安排捕捉到了发明这项作业的巨大价值比例。

  Pi's consensus algorithm, described above, creates a native trust layer that scales trust on the web without intermediaries. While the value of just one individual's Security Circle is small, the aggregate of our individual security circles build a global "trust graph" that help people understand who on the Pi Network can be trusted. The Pi Network's global trust graph will facilitate transactions between strangers that would not have otherwise been possible. Pi's native currency, in turn, allows everyone who contributes to the security of the network to capture a share of the value they have helped create.

  上面描述的Pi一致性算法创立了一个本地信赖层,能够在没有中介的情况下衡量网络上的信赖度。虽然仅仅一个人的安全圈的价值很小,可是咱们个人安全圈的总和能够树立一个大局的"信赖图",帮忙人们了解Pi网络上的哪些人能够信赖。网络的全球信赖图将为陌生人之间的买卖供给便利,不然这是不或许的。的本地钱银,反过来,答应每个奉献于网络安全的人捕获他们帮忙发明的价值的一部分。

  Pi's Attention Marketplace - Bartering Unutilized Attention And Time

  Pi重视的商场-未被开发的重视与时刻的交互

  Pi allows its members to pool their collective attention to create an attention market much more valuable than any individual's attention alone. The first application built on this layer will be a scarce social media channel currently hosted on the home screen of the application. You can think of the scarce social media channel as Instagram with one global post at a time. Pioneers can wager Pi to engage the attention of other members of the network, by sharing content (e.g., text, images, videos) or asking questions that seek to tap into the collective wisdom of the community. On the Pi Network, everyone has the opportunity to be an influencer or to tap into the wisdom of the crowd. To date, Pi's Core Team has been using this channel to poll the community's opinion on design choices for Pi (e.g. the community voted on the design and colors of the Pi logo.) We have received many valuable responses and feedback from the community on the project. One possible future direction is to open the attention market for any Pioneer to use Pi to post their content, while expanding the number of channels hosted on the Pi Network.

  答应其成员会集他们的留意力发明一个比个人重视更有价值的商场。树立在这一层上的第一个运用程序将是现在保管在运用程序主界面上的一个稀缺的社会媒体频道。你能够把稀缺的社交媒体频道想象成一次发布一个全球帖子的Instagram。前锋们能够用Pi换取其它Pi网络用户的重视,经过同享内容(比如文本、图片、视频)或许提问来发掘社区的集体才智,然后招引网络上其他成员的留意力。在Pi网络,每个人都有时机成为一个影响者或发掘群众的能人。迄今为止,Pi的中心团队一向在运用这个渠道来查询社区对Pi规划挑选的意见(例如,社区对Pi标志的规划和色彩进行了投票。)咱们收到了社区对这个项目的许多有价值的回应和反应。一个或许的未来方向是敞开重视商场,任何前锋运用Pi发布他们的内容,一同扩大在Pi网络中的影响力。

  In addition to bartering attention with their peers, Pioneers may also opt into bartering with companies that are seeking their attention. The average American sees between 4,000 and 10,000 ads a day. Companies fight for our attention and pay tremendous amounts of money for it. But we, the customers, receive no value from these transactions. In Pi's attention marketplace, companies seeking to reach Pioneers will have to compensate their audience in Pi. Pi's advertising marketplace will be strictly opt-in only and will provide an opportunity for Pioneers to monetize one of their greatest untapped resources: their attention.

  除了与同行交流重视,前锋还或许挑选与那些寻求他们重视的公司进行买卖。美国人均匀每天看4000到10000个广告。公司为了招引咱们的留意力而斗争,并为此支付了许多的金钱。可是咱们,客户,从这些买卖中得不到任何价值。在Pi的重视商场中,想要接近前锋的公司将不得不补偿他们在Pi中的观众。Pi的广告商场将严厉约束用户的挑选,这将为前锋们供给一个时机,使他们最大的没有开发的资源之一——他们的留意力——完成盈利。

  Pi's Barter Marketplace - Build Your Personal Virtual Storefront

  Pi的易货商场-树立你的个人虚拟店面

  In addition to contributing trust and attention to the Pi Network, we expect Pioneers to be able to contribute their unique skills and services in the future. Pi's mobile application will also serve as a Point of Sales where Pi's members can offer their untapped goods and services via a "virtual storefront" to other members of the Pi Network. For example, a member offer up an underutilized room in their apartment for rent to other members on the Pi Network. In addition to real assets, members of the Pi Network will also be able to offer skills and services via their virtual storefronts. For example, a member of the Pi Network could offer their programming or design skills on the Pi marketplace. Overtime, the value of Pi will be supported by a growing basket of goods and services.

  除了为Pi网络供给信赖和重视外,咱们期待前锋们在未来能够奉献他们共同的技能和服务。Pi的移动运用程序也将作为销售点,Pi的成员能够经过"虚拟店面"向Pi网络的其他成员供给他们没有开发的产品和服务。例如,一个成员在他们的公寓里供给了一个未运用的房间出租给Pi网络的其他成员。除了什物财物,Pi网络的成员还能够经过他们的虚拟店面供给技能和服务。例如,Pi网络的成员能够在Pi商场上供给他们的编程或规划技能。跟着时刻的推移,越来越多的产品和服务将支撑Pi的价值。

  Pi's Decentralized App Store - Lowering The Barrier Of Entry For Creators

  Pi的散布式运用商店——下降发明者的进入门槛

  The Pi Network's shared currency, trust graph, and marketplace will be the soil for a broader ecosystem of decentralized applications. Today, anyone that wants to start an application needs to bootstrap its technical infrastructure and community from scratch. Pi's decentralized applications store will allow Dapp developers to leverage Pi's existing infrastructure as well as the shared resources of the community and users. Entrepreneurs and developers can propose new Dapps to the community with requests for access to the network's shared resources. Pi will also build its Dapps with some degree of interoperability so that Dapps are able to reference data, assets, and processes in other decentralized applications.

  网络的同享钱银、信赖图表和商场将成为更广泛的散布式运用生态体系的土壤。今日,任何想要发动运用程序的人都需求从头开端引导它的技能根底设施和社区。Pi的散布式运用程序商店将答应Dapp开发者运用Pi现有的根底设施以及社区和用户的同享资源。企业家和开发者能够向社区提出拜访网络同享资源的恳求。Pi还将构建具有某种程度互操作性的Dapps,以便Dapps能够引证其他涣散运用程序中的数据、财物和流程。

  Governance - Cryptocurrency for and by the people

  管理——众创和众用的加密钱银

  Challenges w/ 1st Generation Governance models

  第一代管理形式面临的应战

  Trust is the foundation of any successful monetary system. One of the most important factors engendering trust is governance, or the process by which changes are implemented to the protocol over time. Despite its importance, governance is often one of the most overlooked aspects of cryptoeconomic systems.

  信赖是任何成功的钱银体系的根底。发作信赖的最重要要素之一是管理,即跟着时刻的推移对协议进行更改的进程。虽然其重要性,管理往往是一个最被忽视的方面加密经济体系。

  First generation networks such as Bitcoin largely avoided formal (or "on-chain") governance mechanisms in favor of informal (or "off-chain") mechanisms arising from a combination of role and incentive design. By most measures, Bitcoin's governance mechanisms has been quite successful, allowing the protocol to grow dramatically in scale and value since its inception. However, there have also been some challenges. The economic concentration of Bitcoin has led to a concentration of political power. The result is that everyday people can get caught in the middle of destructive battles between massive holders of Bitcoin. One of the most recent examples of this challenge has been the ongoing battle between Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash. These civil wars can end in a fork where or where the blockchain. For token holders, hard forks are inflationary and can threaten the value of their holdings.

  像比特币这样的第一代网络在很大程度上防止了正式的(或"链上")管理机制,而更喜爱于由人物和鼓舞规划相结合发作的非正式(或"链外")机制。从大多数标准来看,比特币的管理机制适当成功,从一开端就答应该协议在规划和价值上爆发式地增加。可是,也存在一些应战。比特币的经济会集导致了政治权力的会集。其成果是,每天人们都或许陷入许多比特币持有者之间的破坏性战役。这一应战最近的一个例子是比特币和比特币现金之间的继续战役。这些内战导致硬分叉的发作。关于名义持有者来说,硬分叉会造成通货膨胀,而且会要挟到他们所持有的财物的价值。

  Pi's Governance Model - a two-phase plan

  Pi的管理模型-一个两阶段的方案

  In an article challenging the merits of on-chain governance, Vlad Zamfir, one of Ethereum's core developers, argues that blockchain governance "is not an abstract design problem. It's an applied social problem." One of Vlad's key points is that it is very difficult to design governance systems "a priori" or before observations of the particular challenges arising from a specific political system. One historical example is in the founding of the United States. The first experiment with democracy in the United States, the Articles of Confederation, failed after an eight-year experiment. The Founding Fathers of the United States were then able to draw upon the lessons of the Article of Confederation to craft the the Constitution - a much more successful experiment.

  在一篇质疑连锁管理长处的文章中,VladZamfir,Ethereum的中心开发者之一,以为区块链管理"不是一个笼统的规划问题。这是一个实用的社会问题。"弗拉德的首要观点之一是,很难"先验地"规划管理制度,或在调查某一详细政治制度所发作的特殊应战之前规划管理制度。前史上的一个先例便是美国的建立。美国的第一个民主试验----邦联条例经过八年的试验以失利告终。于是,美国开国元勋能够吸取联邦宪法条款的教训,拟定宪法,这是一个愈加成功的试验。

  To build an enduring governance model, Pi will pursue a two-phase plan.

  为了构建一个持久的管理模型,Pi将施行两阶段方案。

  Provisional Governance Model (< 5M members)

  暂时管治形式(500万成员)

  Until the network hits a critical mass of 5M members, Pi will operate under a provisional governance model. This model will most closely resemble "off-chain" governance models currently employed by protocols like Bitcoin and Ethereum, with Pi's Core Team playing an important role in guiding the development of the protocol. However, Pi's Core Team will still rely heavily on the input of the community. The Pi mobile application itself is where Pi's core team has been soliciting community input and engaging with Pioneers. Pi embraces community critiques and suggestions, which is implemented by the open-for-comments features of Pi's landing page, FAQs and white paper. Whenever people browse these materials on Pi's websites, they can submit comment on a specific section right there to ask for questions and make suggestions. Offline Pioneer meetups that Pi's core team have been organizing will also be an important channel for community input.

  在网络到达500万成员的临界规划之前,Pi将在暂时管理形式下运作。这种形式与比特币和Ethereum等协议现在运用的"离链"管理形式最为类似,Pi的中心团队在指导协议的开发方面发挥了重要作用。可是,Pi的中心团队依然严峻依靠社区的投入。的中心团队一向在Pi的移动运用程序自身寻求社区的意见,并与前锋合作。Pi包容社区的批评和主张,这些主张经过Pi登陆页面、常见问题解答和白皮书的敞开式谈论功能得以完成。每逢人们在Pi的网站上浏览这些材料时,他们能够在那里的特定部分提交谈论,询问问题并提出主张。的中心团队安排的线下前锋见面会也是社区投入的一个重要渠道。

  Additionally, Pi's Core Team will develop more formal governance mechanics. One potential governance system is liquid democracy. In liquid democracy, every Pioneer will have the ability to either vote on an issue directly or to delegate their vote to another member of the network. Liquid democracy would allow for both broad and efficient membership from Pi's community.

  此外,Pi的中心团队将开发愈加正式的管理机制。一个潜在的管理体系是液态民主。在液态民主制度下,每一个前锋将有能力直接对一个问题进行投票,或许将他们的投票权托付给网络中的另一个成员。液态民主制度将包纳来自Pi集体的广泛而有用的成员。

  Pi's "Constitutional Convention" (> 5M members)

  Pi的「制宪会议」(500万名成员)

  Upon hitting 5M members, a provisional committee will be formed based on previous contributions to the Pi Network. This committee will be responsible for soliciting and proposing suggestions from and to the wider community. It will also organize a series of on- and offline conversations where Pi's members will be able to weigh on Pi's long-term constitution. Given Pi's global user base, the Pi Network will conduct these conventions at multiple locations across the world to ensure accessibility. In addition to hosting in-person conventions, Pi will also use its mobile application as a platform for allowing Pi's member to participate in the process remotely. Whether in-person or online, Pi's community members will have the ability to participate in the crafting Pi's long-term governance structure.

  在500万成员的根底上,一个暂时委员会将依据从前对Pi网络的奉献建立。该委员会将负责向更广泛的社区寻求和提出主张。它还将安排一系列的在线和线下对话,在这些对话中,Pi的成员将能够对派的长时间体质发表意见。鉴于Pi的全球用户根底,Pi网络将在全球多个地址举办这些会议,以保证无妨碍性。除了举办见面会,Pi还将运用其移动运用程序作为平台,答应Pi的成员长途参加进程。无论是面临面的还是在线的,Pi的社区成员都能有渠道参加拟定派的长时间管理结构。

  Roadmap / Deployment plan

  路线图/布置方案

  Phase 1 - Design, Distribution, Trust Graph Bootstrap.

  阶段1-规划,分发,信赖图引导程序。

  The Pi server is operating as a faucet emulating the behavior of the decentralized system as it will function once its live. During this phase improvements in the user experience and behavior are possible and relatively easy to make compared to the stable phase of the main net. All minting of coins to users will be migrated to the live net once it launches. In other words, the livenet will pre-mint in its genesis block all account holder balances generated during Phase 1, and continue operating just like the current system but fully decentralized. Pi is not listed on exchanges during this phase and it is impossible to "buy" Pi with any other currency.

  服务器就像一个水龙头一样运转,模散布式体系的行为,由于它一旦运转就会正常作业。在这个阶段,与主网络的安稳阶段比较,用户体会和行为的改善是可行的,也是相对简单的。Pi网络一旦发动一切挖币用户将迁移到生活网络中。换言之,在阶段1,一切的区块发掘都涣散于每个持币者手中。在这个阶段,Pi币不在买卖所上市,任何买卖都是不可行的。

  Phase 2 - Testnet

  第二阶段-测验网

  Before we launch the main net, the Node software will be deployed on a test net. The test net will use the same exact trust graph as the main net but on a testing Pi coin. Pi core team will host several nodes on the test net, but will encourage more Pioneers to start their own nodes on the testnet. In fact, in order for any node to join the main net, they are advised to begin on the testnet. The test net will be run in parallel to the Pi emulator in phase one, and periodically, e.g. daily, the results from both systems will be compared to catch the gaps and misses of the test net, which will allow Pi developers to propose and implement fixes. After a thorough concurrent run of both systems, testnet will reach a state where its results consistently match the emulator's. At that time when the community feels its ready, Pi will migrate to the next phase.

  在咱们发动主网络之前,Node软件将被布置在一个测验网络上。测验网络将运用与主网络彻底相同的信赖图,可是在测验Pi币体系上。中心团队将在测验网络上保管多个节点,可是将鼓舞更多的前锋在测验网络上发动他们自己的节点。事实上,为了让任何节点参加主网络,主张它们从测验网开端。测验网络将在第一阶段与Pi模仿器并行运转,而且定期进行比较,例如每天,两个体系的成果将进行比较,以捕捉测验网络的缺口和缝隙,这将答应Pi开发人员提出主张并完成修复。在两个体系彻底并发运转之后,测验网将到达其成果与模仿器一致的状况。到那个时分,当社区觉得它现已准备结束,Pi将迁移到下一个阶段。

  Phase 3 - Mainnet

  第三阶段-主网

  When the community feels the software is ready for production, and it has been thoroughly tested on the testnet, the official mainnet of the Pi Network will be launched. An important detail is that, in the transition into the mainnet, only accounts validated to belong to distinct real individuals will be honored. After this point, the faucet and Pi Network emulator of Phase 1 will be shut down and the system will continue on its own forever. Future updates to the protocol will be contributed by the Pi developer community and Pi's core team, and will be proposed by the committee. Their implementation and deployment will depend on nodes updating the mining software just like any other blockchains. No central authority will be controlling the currency and it will be fully decentralized. Balances of fake users or duplicate users will be discarded. This is the phase when Pi can be connected to exchanges and be exchanged for other currencies.

  当社区以为软件现已能够投入运营,而且现已在测验网络上进行了彻底的测验,Pi网络的官方主网络就会发动。一个重要的细节是,在过渡到主网络时,将进行账户认证以保证每个用户是不同的实在的人。此后,第1阶段的分配制度和Pi网络模仿器将被关闭,体系将永久独立运转。协议的未来更新将由Pi开发者社区和Pi的中心团队供给,并将由委员会提出。他们的施行和布置将取决于节点更新发掘软件就像任何其他区块链。不存在中心安排将操控钱银,它将是彻底散布式的。虚伪用户或重复用户的余额将被剔除。在这个阶段,Pi将会登陆买卖所,并与其他钱银进行买卖。